In-lake Intervention Strategy
Substantial Supporting Field Data
Substantial field evidence indicates that applying a crystalized peroxide compound or a liquid peroxide mixture to a non-flowing water body can rapidly reduce HCBs and cyanotoxins (Mattheiss, Sellner, and Ferrier 2017, Matthijs et al. 2012). The crystal can be deployed in several hours to a day. Two crystal types are now available: (1) one that sinks to the bottom for control of planktonic cyanobacteria in the water column, as well as near-bottom or bottom populations, and (2) one that is a floating, slowly dissolving particle that moves with surface blooms, responding to wind or other concentrating mechanisms. Field evidence from the Netherlands indicates that a lake-water-diluted peroxide solution can be effective in HCB control via dispersal at multiple depths (Matthijs et al. 2012). Effective peroxide concentrations appear to be 2.3 mg/L for Planktothrix agardhii, 3–4 mg/L for Aphanizomenon and Anabaena/Dolichospermum, and >5 mg/L for Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa may require more than 5 mg/L, but zooplankton mortalities can occur much beyond 5 mg/L (Matthijs et al. 2016, Zhou et al. 2018).
- Water body types: Pond, lake/reservoir, any non-flowing freshwater system
- Surface area: Small
- Depth: Shallow
- Any trophic state
- Any mixing regime
- Any water body use
NATURE OF HCB
- All HCB types; planktonic, near-bottom, and bottom cyanobacteria
- Singular or repeating blooms
- Toxic or nontoxic HCBs
- Effective for most cyanobacteria
- Intervention strategy
- Rapidly decomposes to O2 and H2O
- Oxidizes cyanobacterial cells and cyanotoxins
- Effective at <5 mg/L
- Modest cost per acre, with dose dependent on cyanobacterial biomass
- Field use common
- Requires access to surface area (for example, a boat)
- Peroxide compounds need special handling and possible state-required training and application permit
- Can release toxins from cells (but peroxides can quickly oxidize these compounds)
- At H2O2 >5 mg/L, may impact zooplankton and fish
- May be less effective in highly turbid systems
Figure C-11. Granular and liquid peroxide application.
Source: J. Mattheiss, Hood CCWS, and Matthijs et al. (2012). Used with permission.
CASE STUDY EXAMPLES
Lake Anita Louise, Frederick County, Maryland, United States: Mattheiss, Sellner, and Ferrier (2017) reported that 350 pounds of peroxide crystals were dispersed over ~4.5 acres in a 10–12-foot-deep system from a small boat in approximately 3 hours. Peroxide concentrations approximated 3 mg/L and rapidly declined to background levels in 3 days. Densities of a P. agardhii surface bloom were dramatically reduced and remain low 4 years after treatment.
Various locations: Liquid application with peroxide levels at ~3 mg/L have also proved effective in Lake Koetshuis (Matthijs et al. 2012); Ouwerkerkse Kreek, Netherlands (Burson et al. 2014); and an Alabama aquaculture pond (Yang et al. 2018).
Costs for granule application are modest to moderate. Granules are used most often on ponds and small lakes, depending on the amount of the HCB and water body size. Liquid dosing is more expensive. Dosing and cost per acre are listed on each product, but seeking <5 mg/L in-lake H2O2 should be the goal. Granular peroxide compounds are not inexpensive, but cost is modest relative to mechanical strategies. However, one or two treatments per year or over several years may be required. Small boats with two people can disperse granular compounds, but special liquid-dispensing equipment (an additional cost) may be needed for multiple depth injections. Other cost estimates are presented in Appendix C.2.
Relative cost per growing season: Peroxide application
|ITEM||RELATIVE COST PER GROWING SEASON|
|Personal Protective Equipment||$|
REGULATORY AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS
Applicator training and permits for application may be required in many states. Check individual state regulations.
Burson, A., H. C. Matthijs, W. de Bruijne, R. Talens, R. Hoogenboom, A. Gerssen, P. M. Visser, M. Stomp, K. Steur, Y. van Scheppingen, and J. Huisman. 2014. “Termination of a toxic Alexandrium bloom with hydrogen peroxide.” Harmful Algae 31:125-135. doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2013.10.017.
Mattheiss, J, K. G. Sellner, and D. Ferrier. 2017. “Lake Anita Louise Peroxide Treatment Summary December 2016.” https://www.lakelinganore.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Peroxide-Application-Summary-Report-Final.pdf.
Matthijs, H. C., P. M. Visser, B. Reeze, J. Meeuse, P. C. Slot, G. Wijn, R. Talens, and J. Huisman. 2012. “Selective suppression of harmful cyanobacteria in an entire lake with hydrogen peroxide.” Water Res 46 (5):1460-72. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.11.016.
Matthijs, Hans C. P., Daniel Jančula, Petra M. Visser, and Blahoslav Maršálek. 2016. “Existing and emerging cyanocidal compounds: new perspectives for cyanobacterial bloom mitigation.” Aquatic Ecology 50 (3):443-460. doi: 10.1007/s10452-016-9577-0.
Yang, Zhen, Riley P. Buley, Edna G. Fernandez-Figueroa, Mario U. G. Barros, Soorya Rajendran, and Alan E. Wilson. 2018. “Hydrogen peroxide treatment promotes chlorophytes over toxic cyanobacteria in a hyper-eutrophic aquaculture pond.” Environmental Pollution 240:590-598. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.012.
Zhou, Q., L. Li, L. Huang, L. Guo, and L. Song. 2018. “Combining hydrogen peroxide addition with sunlight regulation to control algal blooms.” Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25 (3):2239-2247. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-0659-x.